Virgílio M. Viana graduated Forest Engineering at the Luiz de Queiroz College of Agriculture (ESALQ-USP) and holds a PhD in evolutionary biology from Harvard University. He conducted is post-doc in sustainable development at University of Florida. He was a professor in the Department of Forestry Sciences at ESALQ-USP (1989-2009), with dozens of books and hundreds of papers published both nationally & internationally. Professor Viana is one of Brazil’s leading experts on forestry, environment and sustainable development. He served as Brazil’s Secretary of State for Environment and Sustainable Development from 2003 to 2008, and is currently the Director General of the Amazonas Sustainability Foundation (FAS), an organization charged with the challenge of implementing the Bolsa Floresta Program, as well as providing the institutional framework to market environmental services of Amazonas’ forests.